For example, while customers will be concerned about whether their personal information is safe after a hacker attack, employees will want to know how the break-in impacts their job security. The hacker attack case shows a situation where the organization is the victim, but I cover other types of crises as well. To teach about situations associated with organizational misdeeds, I use a multimedia simulation in which a large global semiconductor company is accused of racial discrimination. The simulation, which takes approximately an hour to complete, scores students on the decisions they make as they work under intense time pressure to contain the crisis, as they would in the real world.
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Shortly after the accusation is made, they must craft a statement to release to the media. They also must try to anticipate the reactions of three different stakeholders—employees, customers, and Wall Street analysts—and decide how to deal with their very different concerns. Scoring is based on how well they anticipate the reactions of real stakeholders in actual racial discrimination suits that have been brought in the past.
A discussion held after the simulation allows participants to see how they performed compared to others in the class, which is a great way to extend and enhance the experience. The simulation also offers students an excellent chance to practice applying concepts they have previously learned, such as taking a stakeholder perspective.
For this part of the course, not only do I run the simulation, but I bring in articles about companies that are currently in the news because of disasters they are facing. Of course, I ask for their permission to discuss these situations with the class. In most instances, the participants enjoy talking about their experiences, but sometimes they would prefer not to bring these topics up for classroom discussion.
In the final portion of the course, I ask participants to reflect on the crises we discussed in class and suggest ways the companies could improve their responses in the future. For instance, in some of my classes, we study a case about the FAA levying a multimillion-dollar fine on Southwest Airlines because of poor maintenance.
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During the post-crisis portion of the course, one student suggested that Southwest needed to improve its issues management. The student believed Southwest should have foreseen that the FAA would react by enforcing maintenance checks more strictly. Prior to taking this course, most students would not have understood the concept of issues management. This type of comment demonstrates how much students have learned during the class. If a school decides to offer a crisis management course, it can involve faculty from many departments, because the field is a multidisciplinary one that relates to marketing, public relations, communications, and management.
My own background is in marketing, while my research focuses on crisis management and the psychology of blame; Timothy Coombs, who also teaches crisis management, has a background in PR.
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Given that companies will always make headlines for their missteps and poor crisis management, business schools also can boost their presence in the media by cultivating faculty experts on the topic. This exposure benefits both the school and my classes, because it attracts participants who perceive me as an expert.
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And the fact that the media does ask for my comments on these situations shows students that the concepts we discuss in class are directly applicable in the real world. As organizations around the globe continue to cope with a variety of disasters, executives will continue to have a need for crisis management skills, and schools could find a ready audience for graduate and executive programs on this topic. I believe crisis management could be a valuable elective for undergraduates as well, since many of them will go from school straight into the working world.
However, they can learn a great deal from case studies and news articles about real companies, and they also can consider situations that arose during internships and part-time jobs. Environmental mishaps, terrorist attacks, and cyber security breaches can throw any industry into a state of emergency at any time—or, as BP executives are learning, a few critical errors can have monumental consequences. Students who understand how to weather a range of crises will prove to be valuable resources to the companies that hire them after they graduate.
Charting a Course through Crisis. Calamity can strike any organization at any time.
How can business schools prepare students to anticipate, prevent, and handle disasters? The First Phase of a Crisis I structure my courses around the three phases of a calamitous event: pre-crisis, crisis, and post-crisis. The Crisis Itself During the second part of the course, we study the crisis phase. Environmental mishaps, terrorist attacks, and cyber security breaches can throw any industry into a state of emergency at any time.
Cohorts of Change. MIT Sloan gathers teams of stakeholders who want to spur growth in their regions. Other News. In the process, he explores evolving roles for executives, managers, and front-line employees in communicating and implementing crisis plans.
Ultimately, the book shows readers how proactive crisis management makes the company stronger, more resilient, and adaptable to change. A glossary of key terms and templates for establishing a crisis management program make this book an essential resource for all organizations.
- Post crisis phase in the post crisis phase the.
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Even several years after the terrorist attacks of September 11, , many organizations delude themselves about crisis management. Some enterprises, especially smaller ones, still believe that a crisis cannot happen to them. Others have gone through the steps of creating a crisis management plan, but really pay no more than lip service to the program, and may, in fact, be creating a false sense of security that leaves the company even more vulnerable to attack, accident, crime, or other sources of crisis.
Tim Coombs argues that crisis management should not just be something you do when a crisis hits. It should be a variety of activities that the organization performs daily to prevent crises from ocurring. In Code Red in the Boardroom, Coombs defines the types of crises an organization might experience both internal and external , draws from a wide variety of case examples, and showcases cutting-edge techniques that are being tested in the public and private sectors to demonstrate how crisis management can be hardwired into the corporate DNA-so that sensing, preventing, and responding quickly to crises become everyone's responsibility.
Product details Format Hardback pages Dimensions Review quote "Many corporations operate under the rather nave assumption that until something terrible happens, and someone in charge declares it to be a crisis, no one needs to use the word, much less think about it. Coombs advocates building crisis management into the daily life of an organization with the goal of preventing as many crises as possible and lessening the impact of those that cannot be foreseen. He describes the types of crises organizations are most likely to encounter, including attacks from without and misbehavior from within, the features of a crisis-sensing network, the benefits of a crisis management plan that serves as a living document, and methods to ensure crisis management is part of the daily corporate culture.
Coombs is unflinching in his case studies, describing such crises as product liability, misconduct and boycott, and provides helpful recording instruments and strategy checklists. While large, experienced organizations can certainly benefit from the author's emphasis on integrating crisis management into the organizational DNA, the expository style and the case studies make it particularly helpful for novice crisis planners.
In part 1 Coombs examines major crisis types: attacks on organizations, such as computer hacking or product tampering; product defects or other organizational failures, such as industrial accidents; and organizational wrongdoing in the form of financial fraud e. Part 2 focuses on crisis management tools: maintaining a crisis-sensing network and a living crisis management plan; overcoming resistance to change; and integrating crisis management into the organization's culture--or organizational DNA, as Coombs calls it. This part includes practical guidelines, based on organizational change literature and sound communication practices.
The book ends with two appendixes: the elements of a sample crisis management plan and a US Department of Homeland Security fact sheet for crisis planning. Upper-division undergraduate through professional collections. About W.