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  4. South African AIDS Activism And Global Health Politics
  5. The Challenge of Global Health

Breman notes ries were not committed to their new way of that while architects of the post-colonial era life and were not willing to accept industrial envisaged an agricultural economy of self- discipline and the performance of tasks under cultivating cultivators, the planning process supervision. Chapters 7 and 8 discuss the disregarded the vast numbers of landless current situation of labour relations in India labourers, and the land reforms that were and, in particular, the increasing tendency of enforced after Independence did not include the informalisation and casualisation of the them in the redistribution of surplus land urban working class in India.

This bias against in the Global South, there is also a tendency the rural landless poor persisted in Indian by Breman to simplify the complex causes development policy in subsequent years. Chapters 10 to 13 provide commen- delinked from industrialisation in the Global taries on different aspects of informal labour South. She had a long-term friend- publications, translations, lecture courses, ship with Giedion, which may have strayed planning strategy, international housing and into romance, but even this collaboration development programmes.

Furthermore, she had its limits, although Tyrwhitt did not also undertook considerable research into stop working with Giedion until long after urbanism and planning, yet this is the first what most associates would have endured volume to draw all these twists and turns or put up with. Throughout her life there together.

A good biography is able to not only were numerous strong male characters that describe and discuss the person in question, she supported and encouraged, but over the but to also pull in the wider debates and course of time these roles were often inverted position the life and works within a broader and they became dependent on Tyrwhitt. Perhaps far and wide she worked and travelled. Very little is said about next, barely making ends meet.

She did not establish her her early flirtations with the political right. As a planner, into the international agencies that operated she left few tangible remains and was not in the post-war era.

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The sources are drawn concerned with formulating her legacy as from numerous archives and the research is some of her more egotistical collaborators detailed and thorough; although very little were. Perhaps an findings, often with little appreciation from epilogue of influence could have been added those she made look exceptional.

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Book Reviews My main concern with the publication it is a welcome volume to contribute to the lies with the production of the book and the history of twentieth-century architecture and quality of the images in particular. The complexity of migration, movements The book is positioned in the face of a and social change in contemporary cities dominant physical perspective on placemaking. New discourses and frameworks that array of insights and knowledge grounded in embrace this complexity are needed.

Central the social, cultural and economic processes to this new discourse are the dynamic and sites of transcultural placemaking, the processes of cultural change, overlays, cross- book aims to provide an alternate, human- cultural interactions, intercultural struggles ised perspective rooted in the social reali- and cultural transformations in the context ties of these places.

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What emerge are messy, of migration and the process of making a creative, hybrid, iterative, harmonious and home in places of diversity. This framework recognises three-year research collaboration supported the processes of intercultural exchanges and through the Worldwide Universities Network cultural transformation that occur in urban WUN. The book provides valuable negotiation, adaptation and transformation. From a place perspec- coverage, with the majority thirteen situated tive, the book highlights the importance of around the Pacific Rim and the remaining supporting everyday sites of interactions cases coming from other areas within the US, and making safer spaces and times, both in Australia, England and Italy.

From a process perspective, it of social arrangements, tensions and issues advises planners and researchers to work experienced in these situations. The cases also highlight specific places are developed and used — or, the importance of attending to and devel- rather, made — by their resident populations.

Finally, the book counsels book, draws thematic threads between the us to turn intercultural conflicts into oppor- chapters and outlines key lessons emerging tunities for critical reflections, learning and from the collection. The individual chapters transcultural engagement.

Global Health Politics and Policy

This format makes the book in the area of urban planning and design, appear well-suited for use in a classroom or although it would also be of interest across professional development setting. Transcultural Cities is well Centre for Social Studies, University of Coimbra, constructed and edited, with a comprehen- Portugal sive introduction that clearly positions the. Related Papers. By Peris Jones. By Kristian Stokke.

By Ellen Shoshkes. Urbanizing Cultural Policy.

South African AIDS Activism and Global Health Politics | SHARE

By Daniel Silver. International urban migration: An appraisal of literature. By Christian D Soler. Download pdf. Remember me on this computer. Taken together, these efforts are striking and well intentioned, but nonetheless struggle in the face of powerful global agendas to establish meaningful practices of participation and decentralisation. Examining these efforts shows that HIV scale-up conveys formidable lessons for citizens about the politics of global health and their place in the world. As global health initiatives continue to remake important dimensions of political functioning, practitioners, agencies and governments implementing similar democratising projects may find the warnings of earlier development critics both useful and necessary.

At the same time, the research also finds evidence that this conceptual contortion frames current global public health scholarship, thus adding further urgency to the need to critically re-evaluate the international political economy of global public health from a discursive perspective. The HIV epidemic is widely recognised as having prompted one of the most remarkable intersections ever of illness, science and activism. Previous activist engagement with evidence focused on the social and biomedical responses to HIV in the global North as well as challenges around ensuring antiretroviral treatment ART was available in the global South.

More recently, however, with the roll-out and scale-up of large public-sector ART programmes and new multi-dimensional prevention efforts, the relationships between evidence and activism have been changing. Scale-up of these large-scale treatment and prevention programmes represents an exciting new opportunity while bringing with it a host of new challenges. This paper examines what new forms of evidence and activism will be required to address the challenges of the scaling-up era of HIV treatment and prevention. It reviews some recent controversies around evidence and HIV scale-up and describes the different forms of evidence and activist strategies that will be necessary for a robust response to these new challenges.

Existing research has documented how the expansion of HIV programming has produced new subjectivities among the recipients of interventions. However, this paper contends that changes in politics, power and subjectivities may also be seen among the HIV bureaucracy in the decade of scale-up. In , the World Bank convinced the Musharraf regime to scale up the HIV response, offering a multimillion dollar soft loan package. I explore how the Enhanced Programme initiated government employees into a new transient work culture and turned the AIDS control programmes into a hybrid bureaucracy.

I suggest that this Pakistan-derived analysis is more widely relevant in the post-scale-up decade. In particular, I interrogate the outsourcing of HIV testing to community-based organisations CBOs serving men who have sex with men MSM as a means of scaling-up testing in this population, and how the commodification of testing enables new forms of surveillance and citizenship to emerge.

In turn, I tie the scaling-up of testing and its commodification to the sustainability of CBOs as they struggle to survive. This response has been catalysed by the transition to sexual contact as the primary transmission route for HIV and the rising rates of infection among MSM, leading government institutions and international donors to mobilise CBOs to expand testing.

These efforts to scale-up are as much about testing as they are about making visible this hidden population. CBOs, in facilitating testing, come to rely on outsourcing as a long-term funding base and in doing so, unintentionally extend the reach of the state into the everyday lives of MSM. Gore, Ashley M. Fox, Allison B. Analysis of the politics of HIV programme scale-up requires critical attention to the role of the state, since the state formulates HIV policies, provides resources for the HIV response and negotiates donor involvement in HIV programmes.

Few empirical measures of political commitment exist, and those that do, notably the AIDS Program Effort Index API , employ ad hoc scoring approaches to combine information from different variables into an index of commitment. The indices are thus difficult to interpret and may not have empirically useful meaning. In this paper, we apply exploratory factor analysis to examine whether, and how, selected variables that comprise the API score reflect previously theorised dimensions of political commitment.

South African AIDS Activism And Global Health Politics

We investigate how variables associated with each of the factors identified in the analyses correspond to these theorised dimensions as well as to API categories. Towards the embodiment of biosocial resistance? How to account for the unexpected effects of antiretroviral scale-up in the Central African Republic Pierre-Marie David. At the fringes of the unprecedented medication scale-up in the treatment of HIV, many African countries have experienced dramatic antiretroviral drug stock-outs.

Usually considered the result of irrational decisions on behalf of local politicians, programme managers and even patients who are stigmatised as immoral , these problems seem not to be so exceptional. However, ethnographic attention to the social consequences of the presence and absence of antiretroviral drugs in the Central African Republic CAR suggests that these stock-outs entail far more than logistical failures.

While this paper explores reasons for the shortage, its focus is on subsequent popular reactions to it, particularly among people who are HIV-positive and dependent on ARVs. The exceptional and ambiguous consequences of these drug stock-outs raise new concerns relevant to the politics of global public health. Meaningful change or more of the same? As we enter the fourth decade of HIV and AIDS, sustainability of treatment and prevention programmes is a growing concern in an environment of shrinking resources.

With its new funding strategy and disbursement model, the Fund proposes dramatic changes to its approach, emphasising value for money, greater fund predictability and flexibility and more proactive engagement in recipient countries, while foregrounding a human rights approach.

The Challenge of Global Health

The authors analyse strategy documents against their own research and published literature and reflect on whether the changes are likely to address challenges faced in bringing HIV programmes to scale and their likely effect on AIDS politics. Ana B. Amaya, Carlos F. Caceres, Neil Spicer, and Dina Balabanova.

Recent economic growth resulted in grant ineligibility, enabling greater government funding, yet doubts remain concerning programme continuity. A conceptual framework, which informed data collection, was developed. Nevertheless, reliance on Global Fund financing for prevention activities via non-governmental organisations, compounded by lack of government direction and weak regional governance, diluted power and caused role uncertainty.