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What is a Non-Governmental Organization?
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Facilitated by globalization , NSAs challenge nation-state borders and sovereignty claims. MNCs are not always sympathetic to national interests , but instead are loyal to the corporation's interests. NSAs challenge the nation-state's sovereignty over internal matters through advocacy for societal issues, e.
Armed non-state actors operate without state control and are involved in internal and trans-border conflicts. The activity of such groups in armed conflicts adds layers of complexity to traditional conflict management and resolution.
These conflicts are often fought not only between non-state actors and states, but also between multiple NSA groups. Interventions in such conflicts is particularly challenging given the fact that international law and norms governing the use of force for intervention or peacekeeping purposes was primarily written in the context of the nation-state. The agreement uses the term to refer to a wide range of nongovernmental development actors whose participation in ACP-EU development cooperation is now formally recognized.
According to Article 6, non-state actors include:.
The NGO Challenge for International Relations Theory
In practice, it means that participation is open to all kind of actors, such as community-based organisations, women's groups, human rights associations, non-governmental organisations NGOs , religious organizations, farmers' cooperatives , trade unions , universities and research institutes, the media and the private sector. Also included in this definition are informal groups such as grassroots organizations , informal private sector associations, etc.
The private sector, however, is considered only insofar as it is involved in non-profit activities e.
Non-state actors can aid in opinion building in international affairs, such as the Human Rights Council. Formal international organizations may also rely on non-state actors, particularly NGOs in the form of implementing partners in the national context.
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Non-state actors are fundamental agents in helping to achieve both national and international development goals, such as those around climate change. Actions by non-state actors contribute significantly towards filling the greenhouse gas emissions gap left by unambitious or poorly executed national climate policies, Intended Nationally Determined Contributions INDCs.
Another example that shows the importance of non-state actors in peace-building is the contribution of ICBL International Campaign to Ban Landmines to the international prohibition on the use of landmines. Its primary goal is to make a world free of anti-personnel landmines. Their passionate advertising appealing for global cooperation drew Diana, Princess of Wales to become an ardent advocate. Together, they brought the issue to the United Nations General Assembly.